Types of open projects

Important distinctions exist between different types of open projects. Projects that provide open data but don't offer open collaboration are referred to as "open access" rather than open research. Providing open data is a necessary but not sufficient condition for open research, because although the data may be used by anyone, there is no requirement for subsequent research to take place openly. For example, though there have been many calls for more open collaborative research in drug discovery[3] and the open deposition of large amounts of data,[4] there are very few active, openly collaborative projects in this area.[5][6][7] Projects on the Internet that recruit large numbers of participants to carry out small tasks which are then assembled into a larger project outcome have delivered significant research outcomes,[8][9] but these projects are distinct from those in which participants are able to influence the overall direction of the research, or in which participants are expected to have creative input into the science behind the project. Most open research is conducted within existing research groups. Primary research data are posted which can be added to, or interpreted by, anyone who has the necessary expertise and who can therefore join the collaborative effort. Thus the "end product" of the project (which may still be subject to future expansion or modification) arises from many contributions across multiple research groups, rather than the effort of one group or individual. Open research is therefore distinct from open access in that the output of open research is prone to change with time.[10] Unlike open access, true open research must demonstrate live, online collaboration. Project websites that demonstrate this capability have started to become available. Share-alike is a copyright licensing term, originally used by the Creative Commons project, to describe works or licences that require copies or adaptations of the work to be released under the same or similar licence as the original.[1] Copyleft licences are free content or free software licences with a share-alike condition. Two currently-supported Creative Commons licences have the ShareAlike condition: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (a copyleft, free content licence) and Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (a proprietary licence). The term has also been used outside of copyright law to refer to a similar plan for patent licensing. Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. Often used to fundraise for startup companies and charities, this process can occur both online and offline.[1] Crowdsourcing is different from an ordinary outsourcing since it is a task or problem that is outsourced to an undefined public rather than a specific body.