Relation to other open activities

The goals of the Open Data movement are similar to those of other "Open" movements. Open access is concerned with making scholarly publications freely available on the internet. In some cases, these articles include open datasets as well. Open content is concerned with making resources aimed at a human audience (such as prose, photos, or videos) freely available. Open notebook science refers to the application of the Open Data concept to as much of the scientific process as possible, including failed experiments and raw experimental data.[17] Open research/Open science/Open science data (Linked open science) means an approach to open and interconnect scientific assets like data, methods and tools with Linked Data techniques to enable transparent, reproducible and transdisciplinary research.[18] Open knowledge. The Open Knowledge Foundation argues for Openness in a range of issues including, but not limited to, those of Open Data. It covers (a) scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise (b) Content such as music, films, books (c) Government and other administrative information. Open data is included within the scope of the Open Knowledge Definition, which is alluded to in Science Commons' Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data.[19] Open source (software) is concerned with the licenses under which computer programs can be distributed and is not normally concerned primarily with data. Open Notebook Science is the practice of making the entire primary record of a research project publicly available online as it is recorded. This involves placing the personal, or laboratory, notebook of the researcher

nline along with all raw and processed data, and any associated material, as this material is generated. The approach may be summed up by the slogan 'no insider information'. It is the logical extreme of transparent approaches to research and explicitly includes the making available of failed, less significant, and otherwise unpublished experiments; so called 'Dark Data'.[1] The practice of Open Notebook Science, although not the norm in the academic community, has gained significant recent attention in the research,[2][3] general,[1][4] and peer-reviewed[5] media as part of a general trend towards more open approaches in research practice and publishing. Open Notebook Science can therefore be described as part of a wider open Science movement that includes the advocacy and adoption of open access publication, open data, crowdsourcing data, and citizen science. It is inspired in part by the success of open-source software[6] and draws on many of its ideas. The Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF) is a nonprofit organization that promotes open knowledge, including open content and open data. It was founded 24 May 2004[2] in Cambridge, UK. The foundation has published the Open Knowledge Definition and runs several projects, such as CKAN, the data portal software used by many governments for their open data projects and Where Does My Money Go, a service to monitor government spending.[3][4] As well as technical tools, the foundation also provides advocacy[5] and licensing advice around open content issues.[6] For example, it supported the development of the Open Database Licence (ODbL) and the Open Knowledge Definition.