Major sources of open data

Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields that publish (or at least discuss publishing) a large amount of open data. [edit]Open data in science Main article: Open science data The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system, in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958.[4] The International Council of Scientific Unions (now the International Council for Science) established several World Data Centers to minimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility, further recommending in 1955 that data be made available in machine-readable form.[5] While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, the availability of fast, ubiquitous networking has significantly changed the context of Open science data, since publishing or obtaining data has become much less expensive and time-consuming. In 2004, the Science Ministers of all nations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), which includes most developed countries of the world, signed a declaration which essentially states that all publicly funded archive data should be made publicly available.[6] Following a request and an intense discussion with data-producing institutions in member states, the OECD published in 2007 the OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding as a soft-law recommendation.[7] Examples of open data in science: - Open data about scienti?c artifacts from University of Muenster, Germany. Launched in 2011. - Open scientific datasets encoded as Linked Data. Launched in 2011. Open science data is a type of Open data focused on publishing observations and results of scientific activities available for anyone to anal

ze and reuse. While the idea of open science data has been actively promoted since the 1950s, the rise of the Internet has significantly lowered the cost and time required to publish or obtain data. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; French: Organisation de cooperation et de developpement economiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries committed to democracy and the free-market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices, and co-ordinate domestic and international policies of its members. The OECD originated in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC),[1] led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by Soviet Union and its satellite states [2]) by allocating American financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II, where similar efforts in the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 of the United States of America, which stipulated the Marshall Plan that had also taken places elsewhere in the world to war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea,[3] but the American recovery program in Europe was the most successful one [4] that continued for the re-organization of OEEC to OECD. Later, its membership was extended to non-European states. In 1961, it was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. The OECD's headquarters are at the Chateau de la Muette in Paris, France.