Early era 19962000

In 1996, the Journal of Interactive Media in Education[6] launched using open peer review.[7] Reviewers' names are made public and they are therefore accountable for their review, but they also have their contribution acknowledged. Authors have the right of reply, and other researchers have the chance to comment prior to publication. In 1997, the Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence, [1], was launched as an open access journal by the European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence. This journal used a two-stage review process. In the first stage, papers that passed a quick screen by the editors were immediately published on the Transaction's discussion website for the purpose of on-line public discussion during a period of at least three months, where the contributors' names were made public except in exceptional cases. At the end of the discussion period, the authors were invited to submit a revised version of the article, and anonymous referees decided whether the revised manuscript would be accepted to the journal or not, but without any option for the referees to propose further changes. The last issue of this journal appeared in 2001. In 1999, the open access journal Journal of Medical Internet Research[8] was launched, which from its inception decided to publish the names of the reviewers at the bottom of each published article. Also in 1999, the British Medical Journal[9] moved to an open peer review system, revealing reviewers' identities to the authors (but not the readers),[10] and in 2000, the medical journals in the open access BMC series[11] published by BioMed Central, launched using open peer review. As with the BMJ, the reviewers' names are included on the peer review reports. In addition, if the article is published the reports are made available online as part of the 'pre-publication history'. Several of the other journals published by the BMJ Group[12] allow optional open peer review,[13][14][15] as do PLoS Medicine, published by the Public Library of Science.[16][17] The BMJ's Rapid Responses[18] allow ongoing debate and criticism following publication.[19] By 2005, the editors found it necessary to more rigorously enforce the criteria for acceptance of Rapid Responses, to weed out the "bores". The transactions of the Academy (Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar) were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974. In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Ofversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens forhandlingar (18441903) Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (18721902) Vetenskapsakademiens arsbok (19031969) The Academy started to publish annual reports in physics and chemistry (1826), technology (1827), botany (1831), and zoology (1832). These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single Bihang series (meaning: supplement to the transactions). Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections (afdelning), which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv for..." (archive for...), among them Arkiv for matematik, astronomi och fysik (19031949). Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. The Academy's first online-only (born digital) journal is Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence or "ETAI" (ISSN 1403-3534). It was founded in 1997 by Erik Sandewall, professor of computer science at Linkoping University.

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